Quran: Surah 55 – Ar-Rahman – The Most Gracious

Quran: Surah 55 – Ar-Rahman – The Most Gracious

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

With the Glorious Name of Allah, the Most Gracious [Who has bestowed upon mankind His Guidance [10:57-58, 17:82], the Most Beneficent [Who showers His special blessings upon those who rehearse it and abide by it [7:204, 6:155].


55:1 Ar-Rahman[1], The Most Gracious (, has bestowed upon man not only all the means for his physical nourishment but has provided him also all the guidance that he needs for the development of his ‘self’) (10:57-58, 17:82, 41:2)

عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ

55:2 He gave knowledge of the Quran[2] {, which is a Rahmah, a beneficence, and a means of sustenance for (the ‘self’ of) those who believe (in it)} (17:82) (36:69, 96:5, 17:41) (12:2, 17:9, 20:113, 39:28). {The Quran contains the seminal principles, which provide a basis for the further development of man’s “self” or “personality”}

خَلَقَ الإنْسَانَ

55:3 He (it is Who) created man; (and)

عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ

55:4 He taught him a clear and perspicuous (way of) expression (and distinguished him from all other animals by giving him the ability to clearly express his thoughts and feelings.) (96:4) (3:138) (He revealed the Quran to His Messenger who explained it clearly to other human beings (5:15, 5:19, 14:4, 16:44, 16:64) – a mode of Divine Guidance that is confined only to man and does not exist in such a manner in the animal kingdom.) (2:187, 2:219, 2:221, 2:242, 2:266, 3:103, 5:89, 24:18, 24:58, 24:59, 24:61, 75:19)

{This Quran is from the Almighty Who has produced all the marvels that shall be described in the following:}

الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَانٍ

55:5 The sun and the moon (run their appointed courses) according to a (perfectly computed) mathematical design (in conformance with a prescribed regulation and order)(6:96) (7:54, 10:5, 13:2, 21:33, 31:29, 35:13, 36:40, 39:5)

وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ

55:6 And the stars (or small sprouts, bushes or shrubs growing close to the earth with little or no stalks) as well as the trees (with big trunks) are humbly bowed (to His Commands, and follow His ordained Laws) (22:18)

وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ

55:7 And the vault of heaven, He raised it high (with all celestial bodies perfectly placed in, without any pillars that you can see) (13:2, 79:27-28); and He established the Balance and Equilibrium (with harmonious arrangement of all the parts of this design)

أَلا تَطْغَوْا فِي الْمِيزَانِ

55:8 That you (too) do not be inordinate in respect of the [3]Balance (42:17, 57:25)

وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ               

55:9  And establish the weight (& measure) with equity and do not fall short in the Balance (6:152, 7:85, 11:84-85, 17:35, 26:182, 83:3)

وَالأرْضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلأنَامِ

55:10 And (among His marvels is) the earth, He laid it down for all the creatures (2:22, 2:29, 10:24, 10:31, 11:6, 13:3, 33:27) (2:267)

فِيهَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَالنَّخْلُ ذَاتُ الأكْمَامِ

55:11 Wherein are fruit and palm-trees with sheathed clusters of dates (41:47)

وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ

55:12  And (all) the grains with their leaves and stalks, and (all) the sweet-smelling plants and herbs (13:4, 15:19)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:13 Then which of the powers[4] of your Lord you would deny?

خَلَقَ الإنْسَانَ مِنْ صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ

55:14 He created man from clay (of black, fetid/transmuted mud) (15:26), which makes a crackling sound if trodden upon when it is dry like the baked pottery (16:4, 19:67, 23:12, 32:7, 36:77, 76:1-2, 86:5-7, 96:2)

وَخَلَقَ الْجَانَّ مِنْ مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ

55:15 And He created Jinns[5] from an intricate mixture of (intensely hot) fire (15:27) (6:112, 6:128-130, 7:12, 7:38, 11:119, 32:13, 34:12-14, 37:158, 38:76, 46:29, 72:1-15, 114:6)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:16 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقَيْنِ وَرَبُّ الْمَغْرِبَيْنِ

55:17 (He is) The Lord of the two Easts (i.e. the two extremes from where the sun appears to rise in summer and in winter) and the Lord of the two Wests (i.e. the two extremes where the sun appears to set in summer and in winter). (He has complete command over the entire solar system and controls the seasons, bringing things into existence, nourishing, sustaining, maintaining, regularising, and directing them from their earliest state to that of ultimate completion and perfection) (2:115, 2:142, 2:258, 26:28, 73:9)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:18 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيَانِ

55:19 He sent forth the two great bodies of water (one palatable and sweet and the other saltish and bitter); they meet (each other) (25:53, 27:61, 35:12, 18:60)

بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخٌ لا يَبْغِيَانِ

55:20 (Yet) there is a barrier (and inviolable obstruction) between them that they do not transgress (25:53)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:21 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ

55:22 Out of both (the great bodies of water) come Pearls and Coral

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:23 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

وَلَهُ الْجَوَارِ الْمُنْشَآتُ فِي الْبَحْرِ كَالأعْلامِ

55:24 And (it is) because of Him that the ships with elevated sails float across the sea (appearing) like mountains (or like banners tied upon the spears) (42:32-34)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:25 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ

55:26 Everything thereon is ephemeral

وَيَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلالِ وَالإكْرَامِ

55:27 But Eternal is the Presence (& Existence) of your Lord, full of [6]Majesty and Munificence (20:73, 55:78)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:28 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

يَسْأَلُهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ

55:29 Of Him seeks (its needs) everything that is in the heavens and the earth; every moment He is in Marvellous Splendour (always in control of every phenomena)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:30 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

سَنَفْرُغُ لَكُمْ أَيُّهَا الثَّقَلانِ

55:31 Soon shall we turn to you (to call you to account), O you two Heavyweights (Jinns and Ins)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:32 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالإنْسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ تَنْفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ فَانْفُذُوا لا تَنْفُذُونَ إِلا بِسُلْطَانٍ

55:33 O community of Jinns and Ins, If you are able to pass through the regions of the heavens and the earth, then pass through; you cannot pass through but with authority (which you do not have.) (The Divine Law of Requital encompasses the entire universe and you will never be able to escape from it)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:34 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

يُرْسَلُ عَلَيْكُمَا شُوَاظٌ مِنْ نَارٍ وَنُحَاسٌ فَلا تَنْتَصِرَانِ

55:35 On (both of) you will be sent a flame of fire and smoke; then you will not be able to defend yourself

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:36 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

فَإِذَا انْشَقَّتِ السَّمَاءُ فَكَانَتْ وَرْدَة كَالدِّهَانِ ً

55:37 So when the heaven shall rent asunder, and turn yellowish-red like oil

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:38 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لا يُسْأَلُ عَنْ ذَنْبِهِ إِنْسٌ وَلا جَانٌّ

55:39 Then on that day no question shall be asked to (any) Ins or Jinn about his offences (that had bad aftermaths)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:40 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

يُعْرَفُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ بِسِيمَاهُمْ فَيُؤْخَذُ بِالنَّوَاصِي وَالأقْدَامِ

55:41 The criminals (such as those who used to steal the fruits of other’s labour) will be recognised by their marks (or badges upon them), then they will be seized by the forelocks and the feet.

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:42 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

هَذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ الَّتِي يُكَذِّبُ بِهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ

55:43 (They will be told) “This is the very Jahannum which the criminals (used to) deny!”

يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ آنٍ

55:44 They will wander around amidst this (fire of Jahannum) and amidst boiling water. {This is but a glimpse of the most awful and horrendous outcome of violating the laws which the Almighty has revealed in this Quran (55:1-2)}

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:45 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

وَلِمَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتَانِ

55:46 And for him who was conscious of His Lord’s Presence (and did not violate His Laws & Commands) will be two Gardens[7].

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:47 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

ذَوَاتَا أَفْنَانٍ

55:48 Full of diversity and variety of various sorts[8]

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:49 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ تَجْرِيَانِ

55:50 In both of them will flow two springs of water (keeping the gardens ever lush and green)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:51 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

فِيهِمَا مِنْ كُلِّ فَاكِهَةٍ زَوْجَانِ

55:52 In both of them (will be) fruits of all sorts in pairs

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:53 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى فُرُشٍ بَطَائِنُهَا مِنْ إِسْتَبْرَقٍ وَجَنَى الْجَنَّتَيْنِ دَانٍ

55:54 (The residents of the Gardens will sit) reclining on couches lined with rich silk brocade of the finest quality, and the fruits of both the gardens will be well within (their) reach

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:55 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنْسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلا جَانٌّ

55:56 Therein (will be) women (embodiment of piety and chastity), restraining their gazes (except from their husbands), whom neither any Ins nor any Jinns would have ever touched before them

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:57 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

كَأَنَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوتُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ

55:58 Like unto rubies and corals, (these women will be glittering like pearls because of their beauty, chastity, grace and grandeur)

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:59 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

هَلْ جَزَاءُ الإحْسَانِ إِلا الإحْسَانُ

55:60 Is reward of the goodness (of deeds) anything but the goodness (as a result)?

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:61 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

وَمِنْ دُونِهِمَا جَنَّتَانِ

55:62 And other than these two, there shall be two (more) Gardens

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:63 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?


55:64 Both ever fresh and lush green  

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:65 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny?

فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ نَضَّاخَتَانِ

55:66 In both of them will be springs gushing forth in continuous abundance

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:67 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny? 

فِيهِمَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَنَخْلٌ وَرُمَّانٌ

55:68 In both of them will be fruit, date-palms and pomegranates  

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:69 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny? 

فِيهِنَّ خَيْرَاتٌ حِسَانٌ

55:70 In them will be women excellent in beauty and disposition (characterised by physical symmetry and proportion as well as a balanced and pleasing personality)  

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:71 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny? 

حُورٌ مَقْصُورَاتٌ فِي الْخِيَامِ

55:72 Companions of pure and clean intellect[9] (having fair complexion and eyes whereof the white is intensely white and the black is intensely black), (staying) in the places of their abode, neither enticing anyone to go astray nor having any waywardness in their conduct 

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:73 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny? 

لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنْسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلا جَانٌّ

55:74 Whom neither any Ins nor any Jinns would have ever touched before them 

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:75 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny? 

مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى رَفْرَفٍ خُضْرٍ وَعَبْقَرِيٍّ حِسَانٍ

55:76 (They will be) reclining on green cushions and carpets of great quality and beauty.   {This is but a glimpse of the most beautiful and pleasant outcome of following the Laws and Commands, revealed in this Quran by the Most Gracious (55:1-2)}        

فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

55:77 Then which of the powers of your Lord you would deny? 

تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِي الْجَلالِ وَالإكْرَامِ

55:78 Most exalted (and most abundant in good) is the Eminence of your Lord, full of Majesty and Munificence


[1] The root of the word RAHMAAN and RAHEEM is Ray-Hay-Meem.  RAHIM or RIHM, means the womb i.e. the receptacle of the young in the belly where it is provided with the means of subsistence with tenderness and security, without it doing any endeavour. RAHMAH or RAHMAT has the following meanings: Mercy; Pity; Compassion; Tenderness; Beneficence; Pardon; Forgiveness; Favour; Sustenance; Means of subsistence; Plenty of herbage, or of goods, conveniences, or comforts of life.

From the study of the Quran, one can distinguish two different types of RAHMAH: Gratuitous and Earned. Gratuitous RAHMAH is the one that Allah has bestowed and bestows upon human beings without regard to their endeavours and deeds. The creation of the sun, the moon, the water, the air, and the earth and the sources of sustenance in it are examples of this kind of RAHMAH. The verses of the Quran which refer to this type of RAHMAH include: 7:57, 25:48, 27:63, 28:73, 30:46, 42:28. Earned RAHMAH is the one that Allah bestows upon human beings with regard to their endeavours and deeds. A paradisiacal life in this world and in the hereafter is an example of Earned RAHMAH, i.e. which is earned through effort and righteous deeds. The verses of the Quran which refer to this type of RAHMAH include: 7:156, 9:99, 12:56, 21:75, 21:86, 29:23, 45:30, 57:28.

RAHMAAN  and RAHEEM  are two different attributes of Allah and are not the repetition of the same attribute for the sake of emphasis. RAHMAAN: It is in the measure of fa’laan. It conveys the idea of fullness, extensiveness, and spontaneity and indicates the greatest preponderance of RAHMAH. RAHMAH associated with RAHMAAN comprehends the entire universe without regard to our efforts. The creation of the sun, the moon, the water, and the air etc. all are there because of this attribute. The attribute RAHMAAN generally pertains to this life, the creation of universe, sources of sustenance and so on. The attribute RAHMAAN is inseparable from the concept of Almighty (see 19:45, 36:11, 50:33). RAHEEM: It is in the measure of fa’eel. It conveys the idea of constant repetition and continuous manifestation of RAHMAH. RAHMAH associated with RAHEEM constitutes the liberal reward to those who seek it, strive for it and deserve it. It is the result of the actions of human beings. The attribute RAHEEM generally pertains to the life to come, comprising RAHMAH as a result of our good deeds. The attribute RAHEEM is separable from the concept of Almighty and indicates an aspect of activity.

[2] The root of the word Quran is Qaaf-Ray-Hamza which leads to the following meanings: i. To put together, to collect together or to draw together; ii. To become pregnant or full of something; iii. To retain the seed of a male in the womb of a female; iv. To read, recite or rehearse; v. To proclaim

 The word Al-Quran has the following meanings: A. “The Collection”, so called because it collects and comprises verses, and chapters OR commands, prohibitions, instructions, glad tidings, warnings, facts and the like. B. “The Sententious”, so called because of being concise but full of meanings and abounding in aphorisms. C. “The Seminal”, so called because its constitution provides a basis for the further development of man’s “self” or “personality”. D. “The [most frequently/recurrently] Read, Recited and Rehearsed”. E. “The Proclamation”.

 Putting it all together, Al-Quran is: “The Sententious and the Seminal Proclamation that comprises recurrently rehearsed laws, commands, prohibitions, instructions, glad tidings, warnings, facts and the like.”

[3] There is one Al-Meezan that Allah has established in the outer universe (55:8). Everything in the universe respects this Al-Meezan and never be inordinate in conducting itself according to it. This ensures perfect working of the entire universe as per the design and plan of the Creator. There is another Al-Meezan, which Allah has sent towards human beings (42:17, 57:25). If they follow this Al-Meezan and conduct themselves with equity, this will ensure them also a perfect life as they would desire.

[4] ala-i is the plural of ilyun, which means, a benefit, benefaction, boon, blessing [LL] or favour [LL, AM], or bounty [AM], or power [AB, LQ] or marvel [AB]. The word ala-i appears 31 times in SuraAr-Rahman and 3 more times in 7:69, 7:73 and 53:55. Although, mostly the blessing of the Almighty are mentioned in Sura Ar-Rahman, there is a verse which also mentions jahannam. For example, just after mentioning Jahannum in 55:43-44, it would seem inept to say, ‘which of the favour or blessing of your Lord you would deny’, since jahannum is not a blessing. So, ala-i can be best rendered as ‘powers’, which would perfectly fit in all the contexts described in the Sura.

[5] Abdul Mannan Omar, in his Dictionary of the Holy Quran, has mentioned all the following meanings of the word Jinn: Genius; any hidden thing; intense or confusing darkness {LL}; evil spirits which inspire evil thought; germ; insect; imaginary things whom the infidels worshipped; people of different far flung countries living detached from other civilised peoples; people who inhabited the earth in pre-historic times, subject to no laws or rules of conduct, before the birth of Adam who laid the foundation of the civilisation and Shariah; Stalwarts whom Solomon had taken into custody and having subjected them made them work as constructors of huge buildings and who were expert divers; Ibn manzur in his Dictionary Liasan al-Arab has quoted a verse of an ancient poet in which he calls his beloved by the word of Jinni. Zuhair Ibn Abi Sulma has used the word Jinn for people who are peerless, having no match or equal. Tabrizi writes in his book Sharah al-Hamasha that Jinn is a being who is highly potent, shrewd and possessed great powers and abilities; whatever conceals, hides or covers; whatever remains hidden or becomes invisible; such thing or being that remain aloof from the people as if remaining concealed from eyes of the common folk, as Kings and other potentates generally do. The word ma’shar used in the verses 6:128, 6:130, 55:33 means a community in which its members live in close communion and on intimate terms. Thus by calling Jinn and Nas as (single) community suggests that here Jinn and Ins/Nas do not refer to two different types of beings [AM]; intelligent invisible bodies, predominantly of fiery quality [LL]; certain creatures who were on the earth, and who acted corruptly thereon, and shed blood wherefore God sent Angels who banished them from the earth [LL]. According to 6:100, 37:158, the infidels made Jinns partners unto Allah. According to 34:41, infidels used to worship Jinns. According to 6:128: Jinns exploit, entice or ensnare insJinns have companions or friends (wali) among ins; Jinns and ins benefit or profit from each other or enjoy the company of each other. According to 6:129: Jinns and ins befriend each other or become in charge of each other (wali). According to 72:6, persons from ins took refuge from persons form Jinns. According to 6:112: Shayateen may be from Jinns or from ins, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception. According to 18:50, Iblees was from amongst theJinns. In 6:130, the Jinns and ins have been addressed as ‘m’ashar’ which means a community in which its members live in close communion and on intimate terms [AM]. The plural of m’ashar is ‘ma’aashir’. If Jinns and ins were two separate communities, the plural or dual of ‘m’ashar’ should have been used.

According to 46:29-30 and 72:1, Jinns came to listen to the Quran which was revealed to Muhammad (a.s.). But according to the Quran, Muhammad (a.s.) was sent toward an-naas (4:170, 7:158, 34:28) to bring an-naas out of darkness (14:1), to warn an-naas (14:44, 22:49), to judge between an-naas(4:105) by the Book that was sent towards an-naas (4:105, 10:57, 10:108), and to read the Quran toan-naas (17:106). The Quran nowhere mentions that Muhammad (a.s.) was sent to Jinns.

 According to 6:130, Messengers came from amongst the community of Jinns and ins. However, the Quran does not mention any Prophet (a.s.) who was a Jinn. All the Prophets (a.s.) came to judge between an-naas (only), in matters they differed (2:213) and in order that an-naas may conduct themselves with equity (57:25). All this indicates that the Jinns who came to Muhammad (a.s.) to listen to the Quran were a type of an-naas. These were people of far flung areas living detached from other civilised people. Such people of far flung areas who live detached from other civilised people are called Jinns according to Arabic Dictionaries [AM, LQ]. While ins means people who are sociable and inclined to society, Jinns mean people who are not inclined to society and live like gypsies. Having said that, it must be noticed that the Quran has used the word Jinn at different places in different meanings, including the following: (i) invisible beings which the infidels used to worship or associate with Allah (34:41, 6:100, 37:158); (ii) a species that was created with fire before the creation of man (15:27); (iii) people of far flung areas living detached from other civilised peoples. In 6:76, the wordjanna has been used to mean ‘to cover with darkness’. In 58:16 and 63:2 the word junnatan has been used which means ‘a cover or shelter’. In 7:184, 23:25, 23:70, 34:8, 34:46, the words jinna(tin) andjinna(tun) has been used to mean ‘an unsound or mad man’ (compare this with the word jinnati in 114:6). The word jannah which literally means ‘garden’ is also from the same root from which is the word Jinn. This further suggests that it is a norm in Arabic language for a word or its root to have various meanings and significations.

[6] Two attributes of Allah, Majesty (Jalaal) and Munificence (Karam), are mentioned here and at the end of the Sura. The verses in between put these two aspects in the high spot. The word Jaleel means: majestic; great; important; significant; momentous; lofty; exalted; sublime; revered; honourable; venerable; glorious; splendid. The word Kareem has many meanings, including: noble; distinguished; high-ranking; eminent; high-minded; noble-minded; noble-hearted; generous; liberal; munificent; hospitable; beneficent; benefactor; kind; kindly; gracious; respectable; honourable; precious.

[7] The word ‘Jannah’ literally means ‘garden (of trees) with foliage so luxurious and dense that it conceals all what is beneath it’ [Lane’s Arabic English Lexicon]. To see full details about  al-jannah, refer to the following verses: 2:25, 2:35, 2:82, 2:111, 2:214, 2:221, 2:265, 2:266, 3:15, 3:133, 3:136, 3:142, 3:185, 3:195, 3:198, 4:13, 4:57, 4:122, 4:124, 5:12, 5:65, 5:72, 5:85; 5:119, 6:99, 6:141, 7:19, 7:22, 7:27, 7:40, 7:42-44, 7:46, 7:49-50, 9:21, 9:72, 9:89, 9:100, 9:111, 10:9, 10:26, 11:23, 11:108, 11:119, 13:4, 13:23, 13:35, 14:23, 15:45, 16:31-32, 17:91, 18:31-33, 18:35, 18:39-40, 18:107, 19:60-61, 19:63, 20:76, 20:117, 20:121, 22:14, 22:23, 22:56, 23:19, 25:8, 25:15, 25:24, 26:57, 26:85, 26:90, 26:134, 26:147, 29:58, 31:8, 32:13, 32:19, 34:15, 34:16, 35:33, 36:26, 36:34, 36:55, 37:43, 38:50, 39:73-74, 40:8, 40:40,  41:30, 42:7, 42:22, 43:70, 43:72, 44:25, 44:52, 46:14, 46:16, 47:6, 47:12, 47:15, 48:5, 48:17, 50:9, 50:31, 51:15, 52:17, 53:15, 53:32, 54:54, 55:46, 55:54, 55:62, 56:12, 56:89, 57:12, 57:21, 58:22, 59:20, 61:12, 64:9, 65:11, 66:8, 66:11, 68:17, 68:34, 69:22, 70:35, 70:38, 71:12, 74:40, 76:12, 78:16, 79:41, 81:13, 85:11, 88:10, 89:30, 98:8.

[8] {Jahannam is mentioned in 55:43, which is a place of detention or confinement according to 17:8. One of the characteristics of Jahannam is the monotony of wandering around the same place, as is metaphorically described in 55:45. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of the life of Jannah is that it will be full of diversity and variety of various niceties}

[9] ‘hoor(un)’ is the plural of both ‘ahwar(u)’ and ‘hawraa(u)’. ahwar(u): (applied to a man) having eyes characterised by the quality termed as ‘hawar(un) as given below; hawraa(u): (applied to a woman) having eyes characterised by the quality termed as ‘hawar(un) as given below. “Hawar(un)”means ‘intense whiteness of the white of the eye and intense blackness of the black thereof, with intense whiteness or fairness of the rest of the person, with roundness of the back and thinness of the eyelid’ [LA, LL, K, AM]; The plural of both ‘ahwar(u)’ and ‘hawraa(u)’ is ‘hoor(un) [LL, K]. ‘hawur’: a certain kind of wood that is called ‘al-baiza’ because of its whiteness [LL, LQ]. Al-ahwar(u): a star; intellect [K]; pure or clean intellect [LL]. Ma ya’eesh(u) bi ahwara: he does not live by intellect [R] or by pure or clean intellect [LL, LQ]. Hence, the word ‘hoor(un)’ may mean (male or female) companions of pure and clean intellect (with no inclination to deception or waywardness) [LQ].


LL = Lane’s Arabic-English Lexicon

LA = Lisan al-Arab

K = Kamoos-ul-Moheeth

R = Raghib’s Mufradat fi Gharib-ul-Quran

LQ = Lughat-ul-Quran by G.A. Parvez

AM = Dictionary of the Holy Quran by Abdul Manan

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