Two-nation theory was pivotal in laying the foundation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This brief article looks into the Quranic basis for the two-nation theory.
According to the Quran, the Creator of the mankind has divided human beings into two main categories. This categorization is based on their specific belief/value system instead of factors such as their descent, race, colour, language or geographical location. One category of mankind that accepts that belief/value system is called the category of Believers or Momins and the one that rejects that belief/value system is known as the category of Disbelievers or Kafirs.
هُوَ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَكُمْ فَمِنْكُمْ كَافِرٌ وَّمِنْكُمْ مُّؤْمِنٌ ۭ وَاللّٰهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُوْنَ بَصِيْرٌ
He it is Who has created you all; then someone amongst you is a disbeliever and someone amongst you is a believer; and Allah is ever beholding whatever you do.
[Al-Quran Surah 64: Verse 2]
The Creator of the mankind has given full liberty and freedom to human beings for being a believer or disbeliever, of course, with a warning that whoever will act unjustly will have to bear the consequences.
وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَّبِّكُمْ ۣ فَمَنْ شَاۗءَ فَلْيُؤْمِنْ وَّمَنْ شَاۗءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ ۙ اِنَّآ اَعْتَدْنَا لِلظّٰلِمِيْنَ نَارًا
And Say: (It is) the truth from your Lord. Then whosoever will, let him believe, and whosoever will, let him disbelieve. (However, keep in mind that) We have indeed prepared a fire (of hell) for the wrongdoers.
[Al-Quran Surah 18: Verse 29]
In addition to giving complete liberty in choosing one’s beliefs, the Creator of the mankind has also given full freedom of action, of course, again with a warning of the consequences.
اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يُلْحِدُوْنَ فِيْٓ اٰيٰتِنَا لَا يَخْفَوْنَ عَلَيْنَا ۭ اَفَمَنْ يُّلْقٰى فِي النَّارِ خَيْرٌ اَمْ مَّنْ يَّاْتِيْٓ اٰمِنًا يَّوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ ۭ اِعْمَلُوْا مَا شِئْتُمْ ۙ اِنَّهٗ بِمَا تَعْمَلُوْنَ بَصِيْرٌ
Verily, those who turn away from Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), are not hidden from Us. Is he who is cast into the Fire better or he who comes secure on the Day of Resurrection? Do whatever you will. Verily! He is ever beholding whatever you do.
[Al-Quran Surah 41: Verse 40]